A Short Guide to Musculoskeletal System Examination

History


General Examination

Local Examination

Inspection
Attitude

Deformity (Alignment)

Limb length discrepancy)

Swelling

Wasting

Soft tissue contours

Bony contours

Skin over the region

Palpation

Local rise of temperature

Tenderness

Palpation of bones, joints and soft tissues of the region

Movements

Active range of movement

Passive range of movement

Any pain, sound or axis deviation during joint movement

Abnormal movement

Measurements

1.Length

  • True length
  • Apparent length
  • Segmental length

2. Circumference

3. Angles if any

4. Lines if any

Special tests

Other joints

Neurovascular status

Lymph nodes

Spine

Other systems

Diagnosis

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