Paediatric Monteggia Fractures

Monteggia fracture first described by Giovanni Monteggia in 1814.16-50% of paediatric Monteggia fractures are missed initially at presentation. Anatomy Annular ligament and quadrate ligament are primary static stabilizers of proximal radioulnar joint.Weitbrecht ligament or oblique cord which extend from just distal to radial notch on the ulna to the bicipital tuberosity and the interosseous ligament … Continue reading Paediatric Monteggia Fractures

Notes on Robotic Total Knee Replacement

Term ‘robot’ originates from the Czech word ‘robota’, which means forced labour or activity.Karel Capek first used the term 'Robot' in his 1921 play called Rossum’s Universal Robots.Robots are defined as an array of computer controlled machines that perform preprogrammed, precise, and repetitive procedures.Robotic technology allow to sustain levels of precision, productivity, and efficiency that … Continue reading Notes on Robotic Total Knee Replacement

Examination of Spine

The purpose of clinical examination are many.  First and foremost, the identification of patients who need emergent or urgent care and treatment, and then, identify the cause of patient’s symptoms, its impact on the patient and the needs and expectations of the patient. Any associated medical conditions that have an impact on the treatment of the … Continue reading Examination of Spine

Charcot Osteoarthropathy

Charcot neuropathic osteoarthropathy (CNO) is a noninfective, inflammatory condition affecting periarticular soft tissue and bone in patients with peripheral neuropathy which if not properly treated may lead to progressive resorption of bone, disruption of soft tissues and disorganization of joints resulting in permanent deformity, altered biomechanics, predisposition to skin ulceration, infection and osteomyelitis.It most commonly … Continue reading Charcot Osteoarthropathy

Renal Osteodystrophy

Bone is composed of cells and extracellular matrix  comprised of a mainly type I collagen matrix impregnated with hydroxyapatite crystals. It is constantly remodelled by the finely balanced dual action of osteoblasts which form bone and osteoclasts which reabsorb bone.  Unbalanced remodelling process leads to osteoporosis. Remodelling occurs on the bone surface and the rate of … Continue reading Renal Osteodystrophy

Congenital Dislocation of the Knee

Definition Congenital dislocation of the knee is a condition characterised by hyperextension deformity of knee with varying degrees of pathological anterior displacement of the tibia present at birth. History First described by Chenssier in 1812. Subsequently reported by Chatelaine in 1822 and by Bord in 1834. Aetiology Three theories have been proposed about the causation. … Continue reading Congenital Dislocation of the Knee